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Early menopause is defined as the natural cessation of menses before the age of 45 years. It is estimated to affect approximately 10% of women and is associated with a greater risk for osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, and cognitive decline. Early menopause likely results from a combination of genetic and lifestyle factors, including diet. It is plausible that calcium and vitamin D may influence the risk of early menopause, as these nutrients have been implicated in other reproductive conditions, including polycystic ovarian syndrome, endometriosis, and premenstrual syndrome.

Sulforaphane is an organosulfur compound that naturally occurs in broccoli sprouts and other cruciferous vegetables. A research article, published in Science Translational Medicine in 2017, summarizes the work of Axelsson and colleagues on the effects of sulforaphane in type 2 diabetes. Their research includes genomic analyses, in vitro studies, animal models, and a human clinical trial.

Sarcopenia is defined as an age-related decline in muscle mass and muscle strength. One proposed mechanism of sarcopenia pathophysiology is a decrease in autophagy—a process that degrades and recycles cellular components to maintain cellular health. Studies have shown that autophagy is deficient in aging muscle cells and that deficient autophagy may lead to mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage.

Standardized Ginkgo biloba extract contains polyphenols, flavonoids, terpene lactones, and other compounds that offer potential benefits for cognitive and physical performance. In a 2017 study published in Nutrients, researchers evaluated the effects of Ginkgo biloba supplementation on aerobic performance, blood antioxidant capacity, and expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in physically active, college-aged men.

Magnesium is an essential cofactor for hundreds of biochemical pathways, including production of hormones and neurotransmitters involved in mood regulation. Magnesium deficiency has been associated with depression, but clinical trials on magnesium as an intervention for active depression are limited. The first clinical trial on magnesium for depression in the United States was conducted by researchers Tarleton et al and published in 2017.

Atrial fibrillation is characterized by an irregular and rapid heart rate, dramatically increasing the risk of blood clot formation and stroke. Evidence suggests that the pathophysiology of atrial fibrillation begins with an inflammatory cascade, leading to production of reactive oxygen species and proliferation of fibroblasts. This cascade leads to electrical and structural remodeling of the atrium and symptoms of atrial fibrillation. It is thought that the antioxidant properties of flavonoids in chocolate might interfere with this pathophysiologic cascade and reduce the risk of atrial fibrillation. 

Coffee contains a variety of compounds, including caffeine, polyphenols, and minerals, that might contribute to cognitive health. Previous meta-analyses, based on small numbers of heterogeneous studies, have reported coffee consumption to reduce the risk of cognitive disorders. Researchers Wu at al attempted to strengthen the evidence related to coffee consumption and cognitive decline with a meta-analysis specific to prospective cohort studies and including a dose-response analysis.

Patients undergoing cardiac surgery are at an increased risk of systemic inflammation resulting from ischemia-reperfusion and oxidative stress. When surgery is performed with cardiopulmonary bypass—a technique that temporarily functions for the heart and lungs during the procedure—inflammation is further promoted by blood contact with non-endothelial surfaces. Complications of cardiac surgery are related to the inflammatory cascade and can include atrial fibrillation or stroke. Omega-3 fatty acids have shown promise for decreasing the incidence of perioperative atrial fibrillation and may reduce the risk of other complications because of their anti-inflammatory effects.

Yogurt is a rich source of calcium, magnesium, B vitamins, protein, branched-chain amino acids, bioactive peptides, and probiotics—all of which might contribute to musculoskeletal health. Results of the 12- year Framingham Offspring Study showed that yogurt intake was associated with higher bone mineral density (BMD) at the hip and had a weak protective effect against hip fracture. In a 2016 study, published by Laird et al, researchers further investigated the associations between yogurt intake and BMD, bone biomarkers, and physical function.

Fish oil is a rich source of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), fatty acids that incorporate into platelet cell membranes after ingestion. As EPA replaces arachidonic acid in platelet cell membranes, plasma thromboxane B2 decreases, inhibiting platelet aggregation. A randomized controlled trial, published in 2007 in the Lancet, reported that EPA supplementation significantly increased adverse bleeding events in hypercholesterolemic patients. Because of the potential for fish oil to increase bleeding risk, it has been suggested that patients should discontinue fish oil supplementation before surgery or other invasive procedures. In a systematic review published in 2017, Begtrup et al investigated the effects of fish oil supplementation on hemostasis in healthy subjects and in those undergoing surgery.

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