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Meta-analyses evaluating nutrient levels in patients with long-term schizophrenia have identified deficiencies in folate, vitamin B12, vitamin C, vitamin E, and vitamin D. Whether these deficiencies precede psychosis or result from disease progression and medication side-effects is not known. First-episode psychosis is considered a critical period of disease, when inflammation and oxidative stress are at a high point, the process of neuroprogression is most active, and antipsychotic medications that cause metabolic dysfunction are initiated.

Fish and seafood provide essential omega-3 fatty acids but also neurotoxic methyl mercury, making them controversial foods during pregnancy. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) concluded in 2015 that the beneficial effects of seafood in the maternal diet outweigh the risk associated with methyl mercury exposure, but data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) showed in 2016 that methyl mercury exposure above the 90th percentile had an adverse effect on neurodevelopment.

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and gingival disease both involve immune dysregulation and chronic inflammation. Gingival disease is associated with Porphyromonas gingivalis, an oral pathogen which expresses an enzyme that catalyzes the citrullination of arginine. Antibodies to this and other citrullinated antigens are found in circulation in individuals with gingival disease. 

Sirtuin-1 (SIRT-1) is a NAD-dependent protein involved in the deacetylation of histones and nonhistone proteins, including p53 and H3K56. Downregulation of SIRT-1 contributes to increased p53 acetylation and accumulation of reactive oxygen species—an epigenetic pattern that has been linked to the metabolic changes of type 2 diabetes. High levels of H3K56 acetylation are also an epigenetic marker of oxidative stress and associated with diabetes-related genes, but it is not known to what extent downregulation of SIRT-1 might contribute to H3K56 acetylation and metabolic dysfunction in type 2 diabetes.

Calcific aortic valve stenosis (CAVS) is the most common cause of aortic stenosis in developed countries. CAVS is increasingly common in older adults and has a poor prognosis without intervention. Current guidelines do not recommend pharmacological interventions, leaving surgical valve replacement as the only treatment option for patients with severe and symptomatic CAVS. A clinical update, published in the European Heart Journal in 2017, summarized the latest research in the pathophysiology, potential pharmacological interventions, and new imaging techniques for CAVS.

Consumption of whole grains has been associated with a lower risk of lifestyle-related diseases, like type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Because whole grains are rich in phytochemicals and fibers that are metabolized by intestinal microflora, researchers investigated whether the health benefits of whole grains might be attributable to changes in the gut microbiota.

High serum phosphate is an established risk factor for cardiovascular events in patients with chronic kidney disease, and many studies show that high phosphate is a cardiovascular risk factor in the general population. Researchers in the United Kingdom (UK) investigated whether serum phosphate levels are predictive of primary cardiac events in a large UK primary care patient population.

Atopic dermatitis is characterized by a predominance of T helper 2 immune cells over T helper 1 immune cells. One underlying cause of this immunologic imbalance might be compromised gut microbiota with resultant disruption of intestinal barrier function, in turn, leading to type 2 dominant immuno-inflammation. Indeed, it has been shown that patients with atopic dermatitis have a reduced number of butyrate-producing and propionate-producing gut bacteria. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, researchers aimed to evaluate the efficacy of probiotic supplementation for controlling atopic dermatitis symptoms and reducing the need for topical steroids.

Studies suggest that oxidative stress may play a role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. The total antioxidant capacity is an estimate of the antioxidant effect of all dietary components. Previous studies have reported that higher total antioxidant capacity is associated with lower risks of metabolic syndrome, abdominal obesity, and hypertension. A study published by Mancini et al. in 2017 is the first prospective study to evaluate the relationship between total antioxidant capacity and the risk of type 2 diabetes.

Athletes who engage in prolonged, strenuous, or rapid changes in their exercise routine are at an increased risk for upper respiratory infections (URIs). Previous studies have demonstrated that exercise training sessions can decrease salivary sIgA, which is one of the body’s first line of defenses against pathogens entering the oral cavity. Decreased salivary sIgA is an indication of temporary immune depression and related to an increased risk of URIs.

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