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Home > Trending on TAP > October 2018 > Plant Extracts Minimize Postprandial Glucose and Insulin Response

Plant Extracts Minimize Postprandial Glucose and Insulin Response

10/16/2018 11:04:00 AM
The main strategies to prevent metabolic diseases are lifestyle and dietary interventions, including an emphasis on low-glycemic or low-glycemic-load meals. Meals with a high glycemic load produce a higher blood glucose response and adverse metabolic consequences, including high insulin levels, reactive hypoglycemia, and eventual insulin resistance.
 
Pharmaceutical alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (e.g., acarbose) decrease carbohydrate digestion and absorption, reduce the impact of high-glycemic meals on blood glucose concentrations, and reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes. Unfortunately, flatulence, diarrhea, and other gastrointestinal side effects can limit the use of these medications. Some plant extracts are known to exert similar effects on carbohydrate digestion and have been explored as alternatives to alpha-glucosidase inhibitors.
 
Two single-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover studies were performed to assess the effects of 2 dietary supplements on postprandial glucose and insulin levels after high-glycemic-load meals. The first dietary supplement (Tribitor®, MarMar Investment Sp., Warsaw, Poland) contained white mulberry extract (600 mg), white bean extract (1200 mg), and green coffee extract (400 mg). The second dietary supplement contained the same ingredients with the addition of inulin (2000 mg) and glucomannan (3000 mg). Study 1 evaluated both supplements, and study 2 evaluated only Tribitor®.
 
Participants were normal weight or overweight (BMI, 22.99-29.99 kg/m2), aged 18-64 years, and did not have insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, or diabetes. None were taking medications or other products that might influence glucose metabolism.
 
In both studies, participants arrived fasting in the morning, were given the dietary supplement or placebo, and were then given a high-glycemic meal. Study 1 (32 subjects) evaluated only 1 meal (a white bread roll), and study 2 (150 subjects) evaluated 5 meals (cola and corn puffs, cereal and vanilla milk, raspberry muffin and blueberry yogurt, French fries and ketchup, or cheese pasta). Blood samples were taken sequentially from 20 to 125 minutes after meal consumption.
 
Both investigational products - Tribitor® and the same formula with inulin and glucomannan - produced significantly lower blood glucose and insulin responses after consumption of high-glycemic meals when compared with placebo. The results were significant for all meals except French fries and ketchup, probably because the higher fat content of this meal inherently reduced the glycemic response. To give one example, after consumption of cereal with vanilla milk, those in the Tribitor® group had lower glucose peaks (100.2 vs. 112.5 mg/dL) and insulin peaks (45.9 vs. 68.2 IU/mL) after 20 minutes, when compared with placebo. 
 
Subjects taking the Tribitor® supplement also experienced fewer episodes of hypoglycemia, compared with placebo. For example, participants in the placebo group who consumed cola and corn puffs experienced 3-4 times more episodes of hypoglycemia than those in the Tribitor® group. Mild gastrointestinal side effects were noted only in 4 participants overall.
 
The ingredients in Tribitor® were chosen because of their demonstrated effects on carbohydrate digestion and absorption. Some genotypes of white mulberry extract (Morus alba L.) inhibit alpha-glucosidase, sucrase, and maltase enzyme activity. White bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) also inhibits alpha-glucosidase activity. Chlorogenic acid in green coffee reduces glucose uptake from the intestines by dissipating the electrochemical gradient that drives glucose accumulation.
 
The results of this study suggest that the plant extracts in Tribitor® work synergistically to reduce the adverse effects of consuming high-glycemic meals and might offer an alternative to pharmaceutical medications to reduce the risk of insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes in healthy adults. 

Reference
Adamska-Patruno E, Billing-Marczak K, Orlowski M, Gorska M, Krotkiewski M, Kretowski A. A Synergistic Formulation of Plant Extracts Decreases Postprandial Glucose and Insulin Peaks: Results from Two Randomized, Controlled, Cross-Over Studies Using Real-World Meals. Nutrients. 2018; 10.

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