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The Childhood Autism Risks from Genetics and the Environment (CHARGE) study is a population-based, case-control study designed to evaluate associations between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and a variety of genetic and environmental risk factors. Participants in the CHARGE study were children born in 2000-2007 of mothers who lived in the agricultural area of the California Central Valley or the urban and suburban areas of Sacramento and the San Francisco Bay Area during pregnancy.

Heart failure most often begins with diastolic dysfunction, marked by increased rigidity of the myocardium and slower ventricular relaxation. Myocardial rigidity is the result of changes to the extracellular matrix of the myocardium, with increased collagen, increased fibronectin, and reduced elastin—mediated by activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Vitamin D has been shown to stimulate tissue inhibitors of MMPs as well as suppress inflammatory pathways, preventing excessive degradation of the extracellular matrix.

Short sleep duration and poor diet have independently been associated with obesity, but little is known about the interaction between these 2 variables. A study published by Doo and Kim in Nutrients (2017) examined how the effect of sleep duration on obesity might be modified by consumption of dietary antioxidants.

Early menopause is defined as the natural cessation of menses before the age of 45 years. It is estimated to affect approximately 10% of women and is associated with a greater risk for osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, and cognitive decline. Early menopause likely results from a combination of genetic and lifestyle factors, including diet. It is plausible that calcium and vitamin D may influence the risk of early menopause, as these nutrients have been implicated in other reproductive conditions, including polycystic ovarian syndrome, endometriosis, and premenstrual syndrome.