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Vitamin D receptors are found on all organs involved in the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis and the uterus. Studies of women receiving in-vitro fertilization (IVF) show that vitamin D improves endometrial receptivity and implantation. Studies in women not undergoing IVF mostly evaluate vitamin D levels in early pregnancy rather than preconception. Two small studies in non-IVF populations have suggested that preconception levels of vitamin D might relate to the risk of pregnancy loss.

Helicobacter pylori are gram-negative bacteria that inhabit the gastric mucosa and are associated with peptic ulcers and gastric malignancy. Standard treatment of H.pylori overgrowth is a triple therapy: two antibiotics plus a proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) or bismuth. The most common antibiotics to treat H. pylori are metronidazole, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin, but drug resistance is increasingly a problem. Also, even with the PPIs or bismuth to protect the gastric mucosa, gastrointestinal side effects of triple therapy are problematic. 

Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most common cause of hospital-associated diarrhea and is challenging to eradicate. Between 10% and 30% of patients experience recurrent CDI after a course of antibiotics. The most effective treatment for recurrent CDI is fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), eradicating CDI with a single treatment in 60% to 90% of cases. In a randomized clinical trial, researchers tested whether delivery of oral FMT capsules would be as effective as delivery of FMT via colonoscopy.

Higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] has been associated with a lower risk of breast cancer in epidemiologic studies. Vitamin D binds receptors on breast epithelium to regulate cell cycle, promote differentiation, protect against cellular DNA damage, regulate cytokines, activate immune cells, and suppress inflammation. The current analysis investigated the relationship between serum 25(OH)D and breast cancer across a wide range of 25(OH)D concentrations in women aged 55 and older.